Technical Specifications

Foundry processes are divided into two macro-categories: moulding in expendable moulds and casting in non-expendable moulds.

Foundry processes

Moulding in expendable moulds can be carried out using a non-expendable mould, as in the case of sand casting where the mould is made of refractory material (foundry sand) and is broken at the end of the process so that the part can be extracted, or by using an expendable mould, as with lost wax casting, which is used especially for artistic castings.
With regard to non-expendable mould casting, the mould, called a shell, is made in steel or cast iron and is not broken when the product is removed. The advantage of this method is that the same mould can be used in multiple production cycles, it can give a better surface finish and the process can be automated.

Non-expendable mould casting processes can be divided further into different categories depending on whether the casting of the metal into the mould is dynamic or static. In the case of dynamic casting, we have centrifugal casting, in which the mould moves, pressurised casting or die-casting, in which the liquid metal moves, and continuous casting, in which both move. On the other hand, as regards static casting, we have gravity casting, in which the molten metal is poured into the shell from above, and flows into the mould due to the force of gravity. The die-casting process, in which molten metal is injected into the mould at high pressures, is highly automated, with very short cycle times and thus very high productivity. The surface finish of the end product is further improved by the high casting pressure, which makes the material stick to the mould better.
Il processo di pressofusione, in cui il metallo fuso viene iniettato nella forma ad elevate pressioni, è altamente automatizzato; questo comporta tempi di ciclo molto brevi, da cui deriva un'elevatissima produttività. Il prodotto finito presenta una superficie ulteriormente migliorata dall'elevata pressione di colata, che di fatto fa aderire meglio il materiale alla forma.

Aluminium alloys

An alloy of which the main constituent is aluminium and whose density is no greater than 3 kg/dm³ is called a 'light alloy'.

The mechanical characteristics are certainly among the most important properties of aluminium alloys. For some alloys, the yield point and ultimate tensile strength values approach those of some steels; the low coefficient of elasticity is a further advantage, given the considerable deformability that it allows. A density of around one third that of steel, is, however, the most important characteristic, since it reduces the weight of structures by up to 50% compared to similar steel constructions. In addition, the high general corrosion resistance boosts the life of buildings, which, amongst other things, don’t need painting because of the material’s attractive appearance.

The use of aluminium alloys in industry has grown exponentially over the years.

The main fields of application are:

  • Aeronautics:: light alloys are widely used because of the importance of structural weight in this sector.
  • Automotive applications: light alloys are used mainly for the warm parts of the engine, the temperature of which must not exceed 250°C.
  • Railway field
  • Bicycle frames: Light alloys allow the building of more rigid and lighter frames.
  • Pressurised tanks and pipes: high ductility, even at low temperatures, and the good corrosion resistance of aluminium alloys make them ideal.
  • Kitchen accessories
  • Windows and doors and other domestic applications: windows in anodised aluminium or in painted aluminium are widely used.
(present in amounts from 3 to 4%)
  • Its hardness and tensile strength increase in proportion to its quantity;
  • Improves serviceability of machine tools;
  • Reduces corrosion resistance.
(present in amounts of between 3 and 4%, more rarely reaching 10%)
  • Increases hardness and tensile strength;
  • Improves ductility, machinability and corrosion resistance;
  • In the foundry magnesium has a negative effect due to its oxidability; it also tends to shrink a lot during cooling.
  • Increases tensile strength;
  • Corrosion resistance decreases, albeit slightly;
  • The serviceability of machine tools is considerably reduced.
  • Increases tensile strength and resilience;
  • Improves corrosion resistance and ductility.
  • Increases tensile strength;
  • Increases deformability;
  • Strongly decreases corrosion resistance;
  • Increases hot-shortness.
  • Improves mechanical properties at high temperatures;
  • Reduces hot-shortness;
Alloy type Alloy Description
Name Chemical symbols Casting method Details
AlCu EN AB – 21000 AlCu4MgTi Conchiglia ( F-T4 ) Data Sheet
EN AB – 21100 AlCu4Ti Conchiglia ( T6-T64 ) Data Sheet
AlSiMgTi EN AB – 41000 AlSi2MgTi Conchiglia ( F-T6 ) Data Sheet
AlSi7Mg EN AB – 42000 AlSi7Mg Conchiglia ( F-T6-T64 ) Data Sheet
EN AB – 42100 AlSi7Mg0,3 Conchiglia ( T6-T64 ) Data Sheet
EN AB – 42200 AlSi7Mg0,6 Conchiglia ( T6-T64 ) Data Sheet
AlSi10Mg EN AB – 43000 AlSi10 Mg(a) Conchiglia ( F-T6-T64 ) Data Sheet
EN AB – 43100 AlSi10 Mg(b) Conchiglia ( F-T6-T64 ) Data Sheet
EN AB – 43200 AlSi10 Mg(Cu) Conchiglia ( F-T6 ) Data Sheet
EN AB – 43300 AlSi9Mg Conchiglia ( T6-T64 ) Data Sheet
EN AB – 43400 AlSi10Mg(Fe) Pressione ( F ) Data Sheet
EN AB – 43500 AlSi10MnMg Pressione ( F-T4-T5-T6-T7 ) Data Sheet
AlSi EN AB – 44000 AlSi11 Conchiglia ( F ) Data Sheet
EN AB – 44100 AlSi12(b) Conchiglia-Pressione ( F ) Data Sheet
EN AB – 44200 AlSi12(a) Conchiglia ( F ) Data Sheet
EN AB – 44300 AlSi12(Fe) Pressione ( F ) Data Sheet
EN AB – 44400 AlSi9Mg Conchiglia-Pressione ( F ) Data Sheet
AlSi5Cu EN AB – 45000 AlSi6Cu4 Conchiglia ( F ) Data Sheet
EN AB – 45100 AlSi5Cu3Mg Conchiglia ( T4-T6 ) Data Sheet
EN AB – 45200 AlSi5Cu3Mn Conchiglia ( F-T6 ) Data Sheet
EN AB – 45300 AlSi5Cu1Mg Conchiglia ( F-T4-T6 ) Data Sheet
EN AB – 45400 AlSi5Cu3 Conchiglia ( T4 ) Data Sheet
AlSi9Cu EN AB – 46000 AlSi9Cu3(Fe) Pressione ( F ) Data Sheet
EN AB – 46100 AlSi11Cu2(Fe) Pressione ( F ) Data Sheet
EN AB – 46200 AlSi8Cu3 Conchiglia-Pressione ( F ) Data Sheet
EN AB – 46300 AlSi7Cu3Mg Conchiglia ( F ) Data Sheet
EN AB – 46400 Al Si9Cu1Mg Conchiglia ( F-T6 ) Data Sheet
EN AB – 46500 AlSi9Cu3(Fe)(Zn) Pressione ( F ) Data Sheet
EN AB – 46600 AlSi7Cu2 Conchiglia ( F ) Data Sheet
AlSi(Cu) EN AB – 47000 AlSi12(Cu) Conchiglia ( F ) Data Sheet
EN AB – 47100 AlSi12Cu1(Fe) Pressione ( F ) Data Sheet
AlSiCuNiMg EN AB – 48000 AlSi12CuNiMg Conchiglia ( F-T5-T6 ) Data Sheet
AlMg EN AB – 51000 AlMg3(b) Conchiglia ( F ) Data Sheet
EN AB – 51100 AlMg3(a) Conchiglia-Pressione ( F ) Data Sheet
EN AB – 51200 AlMg9 Pressione ( F ) Data Sheet
EN AB – 51300 AlMg5 Conchiglia ( F ) Data Sheet
EN AB – 51400 AlMg5(Si) Conchiglia ( F ) Data Sheet
AlZnMg EN AB – 71000 AlZn5Mg Conchiglia ( T1 ) Data Sheet
EN AB – 71100 AlZn10Si8Mg Conchiglia-Pressione ( T1) Data Sheet
AlSiMnMg EX UNI 3054 GAlSi 4,5 Mn Mg Conchiglia ( F-T6 ) Data Sheet
F raw
T thermally treated
T1 hardening of the solution dependent on cooling in the mould and natural ageing
T4 hardening of the solution in water and natural ageing
T5 hardening of the solution in water and artificial ageing or stabilisation
T6 cooling dependent solution hardening in the mould and full artificial ageing
T64 hardening of the solution dependent on cooling in the mould and soft artificial ageing
T7 hardening of the solution in water and stabilisation

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